The basis for my research was illness on disorder of ADHD and the different causes that have been recognized. The causes of ADHD are unknown and there are only research and potential causes that cause people to have ADHD. Some believe that ADHD stems from the genes that have evolved differently for some humans. The difference in this evolution is seen to some scientists as a just different way of living, such as a faster reaction time and a difference in attention span. In order to try to figure out which gene or genes is the source of ADHD, scientists have started to research gene mapping among twins to look for genes that have a 50% similarity rate. The genes that have this much of a similarity are marked as a risk gene and are further studied.
The first article looks at how it chooses who to affect. It compares two different studies on ADHD. One being the characteristics the child carries up until the age of seven years old and the other being that ADHD is “biologically based.” The second article I looked at considers, perhaps the different subtypes of ADHD and the onsets of the of these subtypes. One of these subtypes are more dominant and common among young males. This subtype is a combination of both the subtypes, the hyperactive and impulsive as well as the inattentive subtype. The subtype that is most common in young women is the hyperactive-impulsive subtype. The third article looks at the abnormalities in the brain, such as the amount of tissue in certain parts of the brain and the density of gray matter within the brain. Children with ADHD, have a lower amount of tissue in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Along with the lower amount of tissue, the density of gray matter within the back cortex of the brain also was much greater in the children who have ADHD. The areas in which these abnormalities are all common in are responsible for the controlling of behavior. One study showed that the difference of the groups of the brain and its regions and the ability to retain the information and the ability, or lack thereof, to maintain attention.
Brown, Kathryn. “New Attention to ADHD Genes”. Science 301.5630 (2003): 160–161. Web.
This article written by Kathryn Brown is based on information found about the roots of ADHD and how it chooses who to affect. Starting in the 1980s, doctors have defined ADHD by characteristics that a child must have before he/she is 7 years old. These characteristics include being severely inattentive and hyperactive or impulsive. New studies that have been conducted have shown that ADHD is “biologically based” and some scientists that the neurotransmitter, dopamine, has something to do with this mental disorder. Robert Moyzis, from the university of California stated that the DRD4 gene “seems to have been selected for in human evolution, suggesting that it supported an adaptive trait”. He also states that kids with the gene “may have inherited faster reaction times or different attention spans”. He does not believe this is a disorder, rather a change in the way these children, as well as some adults, have evolved. In order to find the genes that are responsible for ADHD, more scientists are conducting scans between a set of twins, and any gene that has over a 50% similarity rate, is marked as a risk factor. Kathryn Brown has a degree of psychology and journalism from the University of Missouri and is a contributing correspondent for Science magazine.
Aguiar, Andréa, Paul A. Eubig, and Susan L. Schantz. “Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: A Focused Overview for Children’s Environmental Health Researchers”. Environmental Health Perspectives 118.12 (2010): 1646–1653. Web.
This article takes a look at the effects of the environment on children who have ADHD. The authors define ADHD as “impulsivity and inattention, has an onset in early school age, and can persist into adulthood”. The article also defines all of the three types of ADHD, which include predominantly inattentive type, when the patient has six items selected from the inattentive-disorganized dimension, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, which is when six items are selected from the hyperactive-impulsive dimension, and a combined type, when is when six items are selected from both categories. Of these sub-types, the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type is most common in girls and the combined type is most common in boys. Andrea Aguiar is a research assistant of comparative bio-sciences and assistant director of children’s environmental health research center at Illinois, Beckman Institute. Paul Eubig has a B.S. from the University of Notre Dame, D.V.M. from the University of Georgia, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Susan L. Schantz is a professor of veterinary bio-sciences and psychology, who studied at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Her research includes the effects of poly-chlorinated biphenyls and methyl-mercury and how they affect the development and aging, regards to the nervous system.
Bruce Bower. “Adhd’s Brain Trail”. Science News 164.22 (2003): 339–339. Web.
This article talks about the different abnormalities of the brain and how they seem to lead to more children with ADHD. Studies have now shown that there is less tissue in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain in people with ADHD as compared to the people who do not have ADHD. There was also excessive density of gray matter, which is a neural tissue in the brain, in the cortex, the outer layer, in the back of the brain. The area in which these all of these abnormalities seem to lead back to are responsible for the regulation of attention and the controlling of behavior. In a study conducted, it was shown that there is a difference in the groups of brain regions that were implicated in the ability to retain information and the keep up attention. Bruce Bower had a degree of psychology from Pepperdine University and writes about psychology, anthropology, archaeology, and mental health issues for the Science magazine since 1984.